Published April 11, 2020
Campidanese Sardinian is one of the two written standards of Sardinian. The orthography is based on the spoken dialects of central southern Sardinia, identified by certain attributes which are not found, or found to a lesser degree, among the Sardinian dialects centered on the other written form, Logudorese. Logudorese and Campidanese dialects are intelligible to a certain degree, dipending on the spoken regional subdialect, meaning some subdialects of Campidanese are more intelligible with subdialects of Logudorese, while others differ greatly from one another. There are seven main subdialects of Campidanese Sardinian, including Occidental Campidanese and Cagliaritan Campidanese. Cagliaritan Campidanese is the dialect spoken in the island's capital; however, it extends to most of the neighbouring towns and villages within a 15 km radius of Cagliari. In 2009, the provincial administration of Cagliari approved the spelling, phonetics, morphology, and vocabulary rules for formal Standard Campidanese Sardinian. All the subdialects of Campidanese dialect are mutually intelligeble, with the exception of Ogliastran and Southern Barbagian Campidanese that differs greatly from the other subdialects due to their vocabulary and phonetics mixes with the Logudorese dialect. The Occidental Campidanese subdialect is also called Rustical Campidanese, as it's spoken in the western-southern-central region of Sardinia, located in the mainly rustical area of the now suppressed province of Medio Campidano. This subdialect differs from the formal Campidanese dialect mainly in its phonetics. The accent of this subdialect is more rubostic and nasal comparing the other subdialects and also, lexicaly, letters in this subdialect are being cut or changed with vowels in their order, making it a provincial hallmark for its speakers throughout Sardinia. Hebrew is spoken by as many as 9 million people, primarily in the levantine nation of Israel, where it is co-official with Arabic, as well in parts of Palestine, and by diaspora communities worldwide. A semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic family, Hebrew is related to Arabic, Amharic, Assyrian, and more distantly so to Tuareg, among others. The traditional language of the Jewish people, Hebrew went extinct as a mother tongue between the 2nd and 5th centuries CE, following the repression of Jewish culture in Roman Judea and the rise of the Jewish Diaspora. However, it lived on as the primary liturgical and literary language in Judaism and Jewish philosophy. During the era of mass Jewish migration to Ottoman Palestine in the late 19th century, Hebrew served as a spoken lingua franca between diverse Jewish communities whose mother tongues included Yiddish, Judeo-Arabic, and Ladino, transforming into the primary language of these communities in the span of a few decades. To this day, Hebrew's revival is one of the only cases of a dormant or "extinct" ancestral language being successfully reclaimed as a mother tongue.